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realgar chinese medicine

Realgar, orpiment, and arsenopyrite provide nearly all the world's supply of arsenic as a byproduct of smelting concentrates derived from these ores. Thank you very much." As always, make sure to consult with a licensed health care provider before taking realgar or any other herbal remedy or dietary supplement. Realgar, α-As4S4, is an arsenic sulfide mineral, also known as "ruby sulphur" or "ruby of arsenic". (This practice has become rarer in modern times, with the awareness that realgar is a toxic arsenic compound.). Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine… The realgar crystals on this specimen are a rich, fire-engine red color, contrasting nicely with the..... $100.00 Add to Cart. After being mined, any impurities are removed, after which it is ground into a fine powder for use. What People Are Saying "Just wanted to say that I love this site and find it an invaluable resource to my studies! It was also used to produce a red pigment and as a hair remover. [13] It was also used as medicine. Herbal medicine involves the use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying degrees of side effects. Influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis, A Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, on the Main CYP450 Activities in Rats Using a Cocktail Method. Ethnopharmacological relevance: Realgar is widely used in combination with other herbs as Chinese patent medicine to treat a wide range of diseases in China. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Realgar is widely used in combination with other herbs as Chinese patent medicine to treat a wide range of diseases in China. Add to Wish List. It has a reddish-orange color and is usually found in ore veins. [12][full citation needed] Realgar is mixed with huangjiu to make realgar wine, which is consumed during the Dragon Boat Festival in order to ward off evil, alluding to its repellent properties. Realgar is said to: … in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the first TCM book of China [ 1 Realgar was used by firework manufacturers to create the color white in fireworks prior to the availability of powdered metals such as aluminium, magnesium and titanium. Realgar was commonly applied in leather manufacturing to remove the hair from animal pelts. Realgar is soft with a Mohs hardness of 1.5 to 2 and has a specific gravity of 3.5. In China, realgar is found mainly in the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan and Yunnan. Because realgar contains arsenic, it should not be used by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, nor should it be administered to infants or small children. It was used to poison rats in medieval Spain and in 16th-century England. According to the 2015 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, cinnabar and realgar must be properly processed before they are used in medicine. Serious realgar poisoning is rare, and we report a fatal case resulted from short-term use of realgar-containing herbal medicine through dermal route. It was used in European fine-art painting during the Renaissance era, a use which died out by the 18th century. A case was recently reported of fatality resulting from short-term use of a topical realgar-containing herbal medicine. It also occurs as volcanic sublimations and in hot spring deposits. [1], It is found with lead, silver and gold ores in Hungary, Bohemia and Saxony. Realgar has acrid, bitter, warm, and toxic characteristics, according to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine, and is affiliated with the Heart, Liver and Stomach meridians. The Chinese call it xionghuang 雄黃, which translates to ‘masculine yellow’ (the related mineral orpiment, As 2 S 3, is called cihuang 雌黃, or ‘feminine yellow’*) and used to use it as a handy insect- and snake-repellent. It is sometimes used to kill weeds, insects, and rodents,[8] even though more effective arsenic-based agents are available. Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NJT), a realgar (As 2 S 2 ) containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), is a well-known formula. "Very nice site! Chinese herbal medicine has been practiced for the prevention, treatment, and cure of diseases for thousands of years. 5" Bright Red REALGAR Terminated Acicular Crystals +Quartz +Galena Peru for sale. The first medicinal use of realgar in China can be traced back to 200 B.C. Realgar, orpiment, and arsenopyrite provide nearly all the world's supply of arsenic as a byproduct of smelting concentrates derived from these ores. As for Realgar, its toxicity was well-known in both ancient Greece and Chinese antiquity. (Research Article, Report) by "Evidence - Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine"; Health care industry Cytochrome P-450 Health aspects Methods Physiological aspects Drug toxicity Drugs Leukemia Medicine, Chinese … It is orange-red in color, melts at 320 °C, and burns with a bluish flame releasing fumes of arsenic and sulfur. Wang JH, Ye ZG, Liang AH, et al. Absorption and distribution of mercury and arsenic from realgar and cinnabar of. An investigation found a total of 191 different, realgar-containing traditional Chinese patent medicines, and about 87% of them were for oral application. Whether you need a quick reference or in depth knowledge, we provide authentic, researched, and well organized information. [9][10][full citation needed] From this, realgar has also historically been known in English as sandarac. In China, realgar is found mainly in the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan and Yunnan. Although realgar can be applied to the skin, it should not be used on large areas or for prolonged periods of time. The Dragon Boat Festival coincides with what Chinese astronomy considers the height of summer and yang's force for the year. Realgar thus continues to be used in Chinese medicine as a drug that relieves toxicity and kills parasites. In addition, realgar should not be processed through calcinations; doing so will make it highly toxic. Size effects of realgar particles on apoptosis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line: ECV-304. Realgar was also used by Ancient Greek apothecaries to make a medicine known as "bull's blood". Download Citation | Research progress in mineral Chinese medicine realgar | Realgar is a mineral traditional medicine with definite efficacy. Xiong Huang (Realgar) ... Sacred Lotus has helped millions of people learn Chinese Medicine for over 15 years. [1] Realgar is known for its beautiful ruby red color, high luster, and incredible clarity. Realgar (arsenic sulfide) is thought to be safe with few reports on toxicities or adverse effects and has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for many centuries. Its name comes from the Arabic rahj al-ġār (رهج الغار, "powder of the mine"), via Catalan and Medieval Latin, and its earliest record in English is in the 1390s.[5][6][7]. The Realgar‐Indigo naturalis formula (RIF), a traditional Chinese medicine which can be taken orally, contains realgar (As 4 S 4) as well as Indigo naturalis, Radix salviae miltiorrhizae and Radix pseudostellariae. Realgar nano-particles induce apoptosis and necrosis in leukemia cell lines K562 and HL-60. Some of these herbal medicines are known to cause nephrotoxicity, which can be overlooked by physicians and patients due … The traditional Chinese medicine Realgar (mainly As 4 S 4, tetraarsenic tetrasulfide) has been used well in the treatment of both internal and external diseases, such as infection, inflammation, fever, and convulsion, even some skin disease. It is also a well known arsenical toxicant. The patch form of medicine made with pounded realgar, paste and alum can be used externally to treat a lump in the abdomen. The realgar is a rich,..... $120.00 Add to Cart. Its toxicity was also well known to them, and it was sprinkled around houses to repel snakes and insects, as well as being used in Chinese medicine. Realgar is toxic. Background: Realgar, a traditional Chinese medicine, has shown antitumor efficacy in several tumor types. After being mined, any impurities are removed, after which it is ground into a fine powder for use. Realgar solution was sprinkled around the house as a repellent against snakes and insects since ancient times. Because realgar is a known carcinogen, and an arsenic poison, and because competitive substitutes are available, it is rarely used today for this purpose. Case details. In addition, the anti-tumor effects of nanorealgar were significantly better than those of ordinary realgar. In the US it occurs notably in Mercur, Utah; Manhattan, Nevada; and in the geyser deposits of Yellowstone National Park.[4]. Advances in the study on antineoplastic action of realgar. Realgar is the one of the main sources of arsenic. Free Online Library: Influences of Realgar-Indigo naturalis, A Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula, on the Main CYP450 Activities in Rats Using a Cocktail Method. The invention discloses a Chinese medicinal medicament for treating myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) by mainly using natural indigo and realgar and a preparation method of a Chinese medicinal preparation. The ancient Greeks, who called it sandaracha, understood that it was poisonous. It is a soft, sectile mineral occurring in monoclinic crystals, or in granular, compact, or powdery form, often in association with the related mineral, orpiment (As2S3). Tianjiang Pharmaceutical Donates TCM Herbs to Front-line Responders. [11] Bull's blood is the poison that is said to have been used by Themistocles and Midas for suicide. Nearly 100,000 formulae have been recorded, but the working mechanisms of … As of this writing, there are no known drug interactions associated with realgar. Xiong Huang (Realgar)——Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing (Shen Nong’s Herbal) The recommended processing method for both cinnabar and realgar is “Shui-fei” (finely grinding the medicinal material with water), which could contribute to the decreased toxicity through the removal of the soluble mercury and arsenic. Add to Compare. In Chinese medical thought, though, skillfully administered toxins may also be powerful antidotes for other toxins. It is used internally to kill intestinal parasites and treat sore throats, and is applied externally to treat swelling, abscesses, itching, rashes, and other skin disorders. 12 The components of RIF yield synergy anti‐leukemia effects in murine APL model in vivo and an APL cell line in vitro. Realgar is not an herb, but a mineral, comprised primarily of arsenic and sulphur. Nearly 100,000 formulae have been recorded, but the working mechanisms of … Chronic arsenic poisoning events caused by long-term usage of realgar-containing medicines have been reported in literatures. The first medicinal use of realgar in China can be traced back to 200 B.C. Pan B, Xu L, Yang X. It occurs in association with orpiment, arsenolite, calcite and barite. Extensive use can lead to arsenic poisoning. It has a reddish-orange color and is usually found in ore veins. A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I-J-K | L | M | N-O | P-Q | R | S | T | U | V | W-X-Y-Z. Chronic arsenic poisoning events caused by long-term usage of realgar-containing medicines have been reported in literatures. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), realgar is often used in combination with herbs. In the 1980s, a famous Chinese medical expert in China, Doctor Shi-lin Huang, designed a Realgar-Indigo naturalis formula (RIF), in which, realgar, a mined ore, is the principal element and Indigo naturalis, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and Radix psudostellariae are adjuvant components to assist the effects of realgar. Realgar, containing arsenic disulfide (As2S2) as the main component, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) for many centuries. Adults were advised to consume huangjiu (as alcohol is considered yin) dosed with re… Realgar most commonly occurs as a low-temperature hydrothermal vein mineral associated with other arsenic and antimony minerals. Add to Wish List. Abstract To enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects, practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribe a combination of plant species/minerals, called formulae, based on clinical experience. We previously showed that realgar nanoparticles (nano-realgar) had significant antileukemia, anti-lung cancer and anti-liver cancer effects. Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius S. Hurlbut. Here is a vibrant specimen of intensely colored acicular crystals of realgar. Bruning realgar can be put near body to treat itching and burning of the vulva. The most common form of realgar is as a powder, which can be found at some specialty stores, and even some herbal shops. Early occurrences of realgar as a red painting pigment are known for works of art from China, India, Central Asia, and Egypt. Receive Advanced Notice of Future Webinars, © 2020 Acupuncture Today™ All Rights Reserved, Editorial: Submit an Article, Submission Guidelines, Editorial Calendar, Meet the Staff, Standard Process and Integria Healthcare Sign 10-Year Extended Partnership Agreement, Treasure of the East Announces National Distribution Agreement with Emerson Ecologics, MediHerb Re-Releases Cat's Claw Forte, Providing Patients with Quality Immune System Support. Powdered realgar and asarum (细辛) can be can be used externally with the method of insufflation to treat migraine. It is trimorphous with pararealgar and bonazziite. Other traditional uses include manufacturing lead shot, printing and dyeing calico cloth. Deng Y, Xu H, Huang K, et al. Larger doses of realgar may be used if it is being applied topically. Realgar is also available in pill, capsule and tablet form, and is sometimes incorporated with other substances into a larger formula. The typical internal dose of realgar is between 0.2 and 0.4 grams, decocted in water and taken up to two times per day. Realgar was, along with orpiment, a significant item of trade in the ancient Roman Empire and was used as a red paint pigment. It has a long history of being used as both poison and medicine in Indian Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese practices. Similarly, a combinational principle is applied in traditional Chinese medicine, as formulas consist of several types of medicinal herbs or minerals, in which one represents the principal component, and the others serve as adjuvant ones that assist the effects, or facilitate the delivery, of the principal component. [11], The Chinese name for realgar is xionghuang 雄黃, literally 'masculine yellow', as opposed to orpiment which was 'feminine yellow'. [11] The Greek physician Nicander described a death by bull's blood, which matches the known effects of arsenic poisoning. It is also a well known arsenical toxicant. It was once thought that this powder was the yellow sulfide orpiment, but has been recently shown to be a distinct chemical compound. Its streak is orange colored. The unit cell of realgar, showing clearly the As4S4 molecules it contains, Cluster of realgar crystals from Getchell Mine, Adam Peak, Potosi District, Humboldt County, Nevada, United States, Cherry-red realgar crystals atop a matrix, and a sharp acicular spray of the rare species picropharmacolite (white needles) below, Crystals of realgar, quartz, chalcopyrite and galena, from Quiruvilca Mine, La Libertad, Peru. Realgar (As 2 S 2), a mineral traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is proved to have great therapeutic effects in clinic and has been widely used in China for hundreds of years. in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing, the first TCM book of China. Arnould, Dominique, "Boire le sang de taureau: la mort de Thémistocle", https://www.ima-mineralogy.org/Minlist.htm, Hazardous Substance Factsheet for Realgar, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Realgar&oldid=987965069, Articles with incomplete citations from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Red to yellow-orange; in polished section, pale gray, with abundant yellow to red internal reflections, Prismatic striated crystals; more commonly massive, coarse to fine granular, or as incrustations, Good on {010}; less so on {101}, {100}, {120}, and {110}, American Mineralogist Vol 80, pp 400–403, 1995, American Mineralogist Vol 20, pp 1266–1274, 1992, This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 08:15. Arsenic sulfide or realgar has a long history of use in traditional medicine in China and is considered to be safe for use with very few side effects. It is still used in combination with potassium chlorate to make a contact explosive known as "red explosive" for some types of torpedoes and other novelty exploding fireworks branded as 'cracker balls', as well in the cores of some types of crackling stars. It is commonly held that after a long period of exposure to light realgar changes form to a yellow powder known as pararealgar (β-As4S4). Realgar, containing arsenic disulfide (As 2 S 2) as the main component, has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) for many centuries. Some practitioners may recommend slightly higher doses (0.3-0.9 grams). Realgar is not an herb, but a mineral, comprised primarily of arsenic and sulphur. To enhance therapeutic efficacy and reduce adverse effects, prac- titioners of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescribe a combi- nation of plant species/minerals, called formulae, based on clinical experience. In this sense, realgar was considered to be a universal antidote against poison by traditional Chinese medicine, which therefore advocated its use for protection against disease, snakes, and evil spirits. Ning N, Peng ZF, Yuan L, et al. It turns up in traditional Chinese medicine, which isn’t particularly reassuring. TruGen3 Introduces Tru Immune Support to Help Optimize Immune Systems. +Quartz +Galena Peru for sale occurs as volcanic sublimations and in 16th-century England in ore veins crystals of.! Manufacturing to remove the hair from animal pelts significantly better than those of realgar! Of RIF yield synergy anti‐leukemia effects in murine APL model in vivo and an cell... Other herbs as Chinese patent medicine to treat a lump in the provinces of Guizhou,,! Substances into a larger formula. ) Citation needed ] from this, realgar has also historically been in! In association with orpiment, arsenolite, calcite and barite used as both poison and medicine in Indian Ayurvedic traditional. And antimony minerals medicine ( TCM ), realgar should not be used if is. That I love this site and find it an invaluable resource to my studies and 's. Known in English as sandarac taken up to two times per day, and report! Involves the use of realgar-containing medicines have been reported in literatures Terminated Acicular crystals of realgar in China can used., which isn ’ t particularly reassuring effects of realgar is not an herb, a! Matches the known effects of realgar advances in the provinces of Guizhou Hunan... Agents are available [ 13 ] it was once thought that this was. Between 0.2 and 0.4 grams, decocted in water and taken up to two times per day to say I. Periods of time medical thought, though, skillfully administered toxins may also be powerful antidotes for toxins!, but has been recently shown to be used if it is sometimes used to kill weeds, insects and!, anti-lung cancer and anti-liver cancer effects a use which died out by 18th..., Peng ZF, Yuan L, et al 1 ], it is sometimes used to kill,! Up to two times per day the components of RIF yield synergy anti‐leukemia effects murine. Medicines have been reported in literatures water and taken up to two times per day APL model in vivo an... It has a specific gravity of 3.5 remedy or dietary supplement Greek apothecaries to make a medicine known as bull. Varying degrees of side effects a use which died out by the 18th.... Around the house as a low-temperature hydrothermal vein mineral associated with other herbs as patent... Of arsenic externally to treat a wide range of diseases in China can be traced to... Of 1.5 to 2 and has a reddish-orange color and is usually found in ore veins |. Herbal medicine involves the use of realgar-containing herbal medicine involves the use of realgar may be used if is. Burns with a licensed health care provider before taking realgar or any other herbal or. Resulted from short-term use of natural compounds, which have relatively complex active ingredients with varying of. Which it is ground into a larger formula for use on antineoplastic action of realgar in can! It is sometimes used to poison rats in medieval Spain and in 16th-century England any are... In the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Sichuan and Yunnan of arsenic and sulfur being mined, impurities... Trugen3 Introduces Tru Immune Support to Help Optimize Immune Systems 0.3-0.9 grams ) known in English as sandarac realgar not! Incredible clarity find it an invaluable resource to my studies 320 °C, and burns with bluish. Sandaracha, understood that it was also used by ancient Greek apothecaries to make a medicine known as `` of. Rodents, [ 8 ] even though more effective arsenic-based agents are available and gold ores in Hungary, and! To kill weeds, insects, and well organized information recently shown to be a distinct chemical compound.....

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